# Saturn Rings and the Distribution of E-Ring Particles

Rings are symmetrical objects and so do not contain any elements that can be repeated infinitely. As such, they are called closed forms. In mathematics, rings are geometrical structures that generalize various branches of mathematics: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, division again and multiplication. Simply put, a ring is an interrelated set equipped with both multiplication and addition of certain numbers satisfying essential properties analogous to those of the natural numbers. In addition to their well-known properties of simplicity (e.g., the existence of nonzero numbers) and commutation (e.g., the power of addition and the power of subtraction), there are three other interesting rings: the perfect ring, the closed interval ring, and the infinite ring.

The perfect ring is composed of the e-ring (a single unit consisting of the e-sphere and one or more flat surfaces), the Saturn ring (a group consisting of the e-ring and the points that surround it on all sides) and the vortex ring (a collection of the same points that surround and lie on the e-ring). In order for the rings to be symmetrical, their radii should be identical. If any of the rings is outside of the range of lines passing through the system, their equator will be either tilted or rotated out of the plane. This is the reason why many of them have flat disks. Although the e-ring and the Saturn are perfectly spherical, the vortex and the rings themselves are not.

Saturn’s rings, like those of the e-ring, are made up of e-rings that circle an inner region where gravity is less than the centrifugal force that would result in the moon’s orbit being broken. The inner part is therefore closer to the ring’s equator. Scientists have tried to explain the close proximity of the moons to the rings, and how this impacts the distribution of the ring particles. They believe that the moons bring in a lot of ice, which then becomes snow, and eventually melts into a solid chunk that floats around the inner part of the ring. The same process takes place as liquid water freezes into ice crystals, and as rock sinks into the liquid, it becomes less dense and easier to carry away by convection.

One model of the solar system has shown how the distribution of ring particles can help explain the composition of the planets. In this model, the presence of a moon could explain the presence of rocky worlds, such as Earth and Mars, as well as icy worlds like Jupiter and Saturn. If the presence of other small rocky planets, and even bigger icy ones like the moons of Jupiter and Saturn are present, then scientists can explain why the distribution of the ring particles is what it is. They can also pinpoint which type of planet it is through calculations based on its orbit.

Based on the model, if the moon was in orbit around Saturn, then some of the smaller icy moons of Saturn would be dragging along some of the ring particles as they went around the planet. This would explain why there are some cratered areas on the moon’s surface and some cratered moons within the belt of comets around Saturn. Another way the moon can affect the distribution of ring particles is if it came from another solar system. Through calculations, it was discovered that some of the outer planets had a very thin atmosphere while Saturn’s rings were made up mostly of silicon (not to mention hydrogen and oxygen).

So what does this all mean? Not a whole lot really, but to scientists it is an interesting study. While not every scientist supports the theory that the distribution of Saturn rings can be explained by the distribution of e ring particles, most scientists do not doubt that it is possible. While no one can be exactly sure how the e ring travels around the gas giant planet Saturn, understanding how the moons surrounding it travel around it may shed some light on the problem.